ForSains

Salah Data Sirekap Pilpres, Perlu Upaya Verifikasi dan Falsifikasi

Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) menyampaikan terjadi kesalahan data perolehan suara di dalam Sistem Informasi Rekapitulasi (Sirekap). Dari data perolehan suara Pilpres di 638.497 TPS, yang sudah masuk ke Sirekap (per-27 Februari 2024), sebanyak 154.541 TPS mengalami kesalahan. Artinya, persentase kesalahan ini mencapai 24,2 persen.

Kesalahan input data itu oleh KPU diistilahkan sebagai “salah pembacaan” dan dianggap sebagai “data anomali”. Karena jumlahnya tidak sinkron dengan foto formulir C1 Plano (catatan hasil penghitungan suara) yang dikirimkan oleh masing-masing TPS.

Sirekap melakukan pendataan dengan menggunakan teknologi pengenalan tanda optis (optical mark recognition, OMR) dan pengenalan karakter optis (optical character recognition, OCR).

Dengan teknologi itu pola dan tulisan tangan yang tertera pada formulir C1 Plano  di TPS, ketika difoto dan diunggah ke Sirekap, langsung dikenali dan dapat diubah menjadi data numerik (angka) untuk dikirim ke server.

Sirekap mampu membaca formulir hasil penghitungan suara yang dipotret (formulir C1 Plano). Namun, ternyata, pembacaan Sirekap ini banyak yang salah. Bagaimana terjadi “salah baca” yang begitu masif, KPU tidak menjelaskan secara gamblang.

KPU bahkan akan terus melanjutkan penayangan data perolehan suara di Sirekap, dengan alasan demi transparansi. Sembari menegaskan hasil pilpres tetap berbasis pada hitungan manual.

Sirekap adalah aplikasi penghitungan suara Pemilu 2024, yang bisa diakses oleh publik. Cara kerjanya, Petugas KPPS menginstal aplikasi Sirekap pada smartphone masing-masing;  Membuat akun, dan login menggunakan akun yang sudah didaftarkan.

Petugas KPPS menghitung hasil perolehan suara dan menuliskan hasilnya pada Formulir C.Hasil-KWK; Petugas KPPS melakukan pemotretan terhadap Formulir C.Hasil-KWK yang sudah terisi; Aplikasi Sirekap menampilkan hasil pembacaan OCR/OMR. KPPS memeriksa hasil pembacaan tersebut serta memastikannya sesuai dengan Formulir C.Hasil-KWK;

Kemudian, KPPS mengirimkan foto dokumen dan hasil pembacaan OCR/OMR pada saksi dan pengawas yang sudah terdaftar, berupa link atau barcode yang tersedia dalam aplikasi Sirekap. Saksi dan pengawas menerima foto dan hasil pembacaan OCR/OMR dengan cara scan barcode atau mengunjungi link yang diberikan oleh KPPS.

Apapun fungsi Sirekap, sebagai alat bantu resmi proses rekapitulasi penghitungan suara, perlu selalu diuji, diverifikasi, dan difalsifikasi kinerjanya. KPU sudah menyampaikan ada “salah data” Sirekap di 154.541 TPS. Ini kesalahan yang luar biasa besar, menunjukkan Sirekap alat bantu yang tidak bisa dihandalkan.

Dalam metode sains, falsifikasi (Karl Popper), jangankan ada ratusan ribu TPS yg “salah data”, kesalahan data di satu TPS saja sudah bisa menggugurkan reliabilitas Sirekap dan kinerja KPU. Prinsip falsifikasi adalah metode pembuktian kesalahan, berbeda dengan verifikasi sebagai pembuktian kebenaran. Bukti kesalahan pada Sirekap menunjukkan aplikasi ini tidak handal, dan rentan disalahgunakan.

Jadi yang menganggap Pemilu dan Pilpres saat ini berjalan baik-baik saja sebaiknya sabar dan sadar, tidak terburu-buru menganggap Pemilu sudah usai. Biarkan proses  verifikasi dan falsifikasi atas penghitungan suara, data anomali, dan adanya berbagai keanehan pelaksanaan pemilu (kecurangan) terus berjalan, termasuk upaya mengajukan Hak Angket.

Melalui upaya verifikasi dan falsifikasi, yang ketat, semoga misteri dan anomali banyaknya kesalahan data penghitungan suara oleh KPU, atau kecurangan, bisa terungkap.

Lukas Luwarso

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