ForSains

2. Pohon Kekerabatan Semua Mahluk Hidup Di Bumi

“Semua Mahluk Hidup Di Bumi Adalah Satu Kerabat Besar”. Demikian kata Leonard Eisenberg, seorang ahli Geologi, yang mengembangkan Diagram pohon kekerabatan semua mahluk hidup”.

Leonard Eisenberg membuat diagram Pohon kekerabatan tersebut untuk mempermudah memahami hubungan kekerabatan antar mahluk hidup.

Kehidupan di planet ini selalu berubah seiring berjalannya waktu. Situs https://www.evogeneao.com/en yang dibuat Leonard Eisenberg, membuat Evolusi lebih mudah dipahami.

Pohon kekerabatan Leonard Eisenberg

Berikut adalah pohon kekerabatan semua makhluk hidup di Bumi yang terangkai dalam satu diagram.

Silakan lihat, atau klik di sini :
https://evogeneao.s3.amazonaws.com/images/tree_of_life/tree-of-life_2000.png

• Usia Bumi digambarkan dengan sumbu jejari gambar.

• Seiring bertambahnya usia dunia, semakin banyak spesies yang menghuninya.

• Jejari nol (pusat lingkaran) adalah saat terbentuknya Bumi ± 4,5 milyar tahun silam.

• 4,1 milyar tahun silam, LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) adalah mahluk bersel tunggal pertama yang kemudian menurunkan semua mahluk hidup di dunia, termasuk tanaman, bakteri, jamur dan hewan (termasuk manusia).

• 3,2 milyar tahun silam, salah satu bakteri ber evolusi menjadi Archaea.

• 2,3 milyar tahun silam, salah satu Archaea ber evolusi menjadi nenek moyang Tumbuhan (yang bisa berfotosintesis).

• 1,6 milyar tahun silam, salah satu Archaea ber evolusi menjadi nenek moyang Jamur.

• 640 juta tahun silam, mulai muncul nenek moyang Serangga.

• 550 juta tahun silam, mulai muncul nenek moyang Ikan.

• 415 juta tahun silam, sebagian Ikan berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Amfibi.

• 355 juta tahun silam, sebagian Amfibi berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Reptil.

• 325 juta tahun silam, sebagian Reptil berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Dinosaurus.

• 320 juta tahun silam, sebagian Reptil berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Mamalia.

• 240 juta tahun silam, mulai muncul Mamalia.

• 235 juta tahun silam, sebagian Dinosaurus berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Unggas.

• 90 juta tahun silam, sebagian mamalia berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Primata.

• 33 juta tahun silam, sebagian primata berevolusi menjadi nenek moyang Kera Besar.

• 350.000 tahun silam, mulai muncul manusia moderen (Homo Sapiens).

• Garis lingkaran putus² menunjukkan berbagai peristiwa besar di bumi, termasuk 5 Kepunahan Masal. Tampak kepunahan Dinosaurus terjadi pada 66 juta tahun silam. Garis tersebut juga menunjukkan ledakan besar munculnya beragam spesies baru (Ledakan Kambrium 542 juta tahun silam).

Diagram pohon kekerabatan ini dibuat berdasarkan buku “The Ancestor’s Tale” karya Dr. Richard Dawkins.

Situs ini juga menyediakan diagram interaktif di sini :
https://www.evogeneao.com/en/explore/tree-of-life-explorer

Di sini kita bisa mencari usia nenek moyang bersama antar spesies. Sebagai contoh :
• Kita klik “flowering plant”, maka akan segera muncul data :
– Ilustrasi perkiraan bentuk nenek moyang bersama antara manusia dengan pohon Mangga.
– Kita punya satu nenek moyang bersama dengan pohon Mangga pada 1,6 milyar tahun silam.
– 2,9 milyar generasi di atas kita sama dengan 4,7 milyar generasi di atas pohon Mangga. Jadi pohon Mangga itu masih terhitung keponakan kita juga.😁😁

Nenek moyang bersama pohon mangga-manusia

• Kemudian kita klik 2 kali “ginko”, maka akan segera muncul data :
– Ilustrasi perkiraan bentuk nenek moyang bersama antara pohon Ginseng dengan pohon Mangga.
– Pohon Ginseng punya satu nenek moyang bersama dengan pohon Mangga pada 330 juta tahun silam.
– 84 juta generasi di atas pohon Mangga sama dengan 165 juta generasi di atas pohon Ginseng.

Nenek moyang bersama ginseng-mangga

Begitulah sains…. Manusia hanyalah sebagian kecil dari Evolusi itu sendiri.

Jakarta, Sabtu Kliwon, 30.12.23

꧋ꦤꦸꦂꦱꦺꦠꦲꦂꦢꦶꦥꦸꦠꦿꦤ꧀ꦠꦺꦴ꧉
(Nurseto Ardiputranto)

———-
SERIAL EVOLUSI :
1. Terciptanya Awal Kehidupan
https://forsains.id/perspektif/4588/

2. Pohon Kekerabatan Semua Mahluk Hidup Di Bumi
https://forsains.id/perspektif/pohon-kekerabatan-semua-mahluk-hidup-di-bumi/
———-

Ref no.1
https://www.evogeneao.com/en

Ref no.2
https://www-businessinsider-com.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/www.businessinsider.com/evolution-graphic

Nurseto Ardiputranto

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