ForSains

NYADRAN, Sebuah SINKRETISME di Jawa Tengah


Nyadran adalah serangkaian ritual :
● Pembersihan makam leluhur,
● Ziarah kubur, dengan mendoakan kerabat dan para leluhur yang telah meninggal.
● Tabur bunga,
● Kenduri selamatan
di makam, dan ditutup dengan
● Makan bersama.

Di kampung kami, desa Ngampin Ambarawa, Ritual Nyadran dilaksanakan pada Jumat Kliwon 23.02.24.

Tradisi tersebut dilakukan oleh masyarakat Jawa Tengah setiap menghadapi bulan Puasa.

Nyadran berasal dari bahasa Sanskerta : “SRADDHA”, adalah ritual sejak zaman HINDU di pulau Jawa.

Sejak abad 15 para Walisongo menggabungkan tradisi tersebut dengan dakwahnya, agar agama Islam mudah diterima masyarakat. Para wali tidak menghapus adat, namun menyelaraskan dengan pembacaan ayat Al-Quran, tahlil, dan doa.

Tiap keluarga yang mengikuti kenduri diwajibkan membawa makanan tradisional sendiri², seperti
– Ayam,
– Sambal goreng ati,
– Urap sayur
– Rempah,
– Perkedel,
– Tempe
– Tahu bacem,
– dlsb.

Dalam masyarakat Tionghoa (Kong Hu Cu) juga ada ritual Ziarah Kubur atau Ceng Beng, yang dilaksanakan sekitar 2 bulan setelah Hari Raya Imlek (biasanya setiap tanggal 4 atau 5 April).

Ritual Ceng Beng adalah ungkapan masyarakat Tionghoa yang sangat mencintai dan menghormati leluhurnya. Seluruh keluarga yang di perantauan berupaya pulang untuk melaksanakan ritual di kampung halamannya. Di China, Ceng Beng disebut Qingming.

Seminggu sebelum hari H, keluarga mulai membersihan makam. Pada saat Ceng Beng, sejak dini hari hingga siang, mereka memadati pemakaman.

Mereka :
▪︎ Membersihkan makam para leluhur,
▪︎ Menyiapkan berbagai persembahan untuk leluhur. Biasanya persembahan mereka adalah :
Samsang dari 3 jenis daging yang berasal dari darat, air, dan udara.
Samguo, 3 jenis buah² an, dan
– Minuman yang terdiri dari teh dan arak (jiu).
▪︎ Bersembahyang.

Saat upacara Ceng Beng masyarakat Tionghoa juga wajib menyiapkan kimchi atau uang² an kertas. Uang kertas itu nantinya akan akan dibakar bersama dengan hio untuk dipersembahkan kepada leluhur.

Festival Qingming digagas oleh Kaisar Xuanzong pada tahun 732 (Dinasti Tang) untuk menggantikan upacara pemujaan nenek moyang yang terlalu rumit dan mahal. Kaisar Xuanzong menetapkan, penghormatan cukup dilakukan dengan mengunjungi kuburan nenek moyang pada hari Qingming.
—–
Renungan :
● Kalau kita simak, Ritual semacam Nyadran tidak kita temukan pada umat Hindu India.
● Ritual semacam Nyadran juga tidak kita temukan pada masyarakat Hindu Bali.
● Jelas, ritual Nyadran bukan berasal dari Hindu.
● Ritual semacam Nyadran justru kita temukan pada masyarakat Tionghoa.

Mungkin karena melihat ada Nilai² Luhur yang ada pada ritual Ceng Beng, maka nenek moyang kita lalu mengadopsinya menjadi ritual Sraddha.

Inilah yang dinamakan sebagai proses Sinkretisme, sebuah proses perpaduan dari beberapa kepercayaan atau keyakinan.

Jakarta, Selasa Wage, 27.02.24

꧋ꦤꦸꦂꦱꦺꦠꦲꦂꦢꦶꦥꦸꦠꦿꦤ꧀ꦠꦺꦴ꧉
(Nurseto Ardiputranto)
———-
Ref no.1
https://id.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyadran

Ref no.2
https://babel-antaranews-com.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/babel.antaranews.com/amp/berita/345093/ceng-beng-tradisi-menghormati-leluhur-bagi-etnis-tionghoa?amp_gsa=1&amp_js_v=a9&usqp=mq331AQIUAKwASCAAgM%3D#amp_tf=Dari%20%251%24s&aoh=17084998802274&referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com&ampshare=https%3A%2F%2Fbabel.antaranews.com%2Fberita%2F345093%2Fceng-beng-tradisi-menghormati-leluhur-bagi-etnis-tionghoa

Ref no.3
https://id.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sraddha

Ref no.4
https://id.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festival_Qingming

Ref no.5
https://m.tribunnews.com/travel/2016/04/03/uniknya-ceng-beng-di-bangka-lebih-sakral-dibanding-negeri-china

Nurseto Ardiputranto

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